Degummed Soybean Oil
The extraction of Soybean Oil is achieved through an industrial process, similar to that of Soybean Bagasse. This starts with a grain preparation process to increase the specific area of the solid and an extrusion to minimize the volume of the process stream, followed by a solid/liquid solvent extraction. After the extraction, a phase of solvent recovery and clarification is necessary, where the impurities and dirt are removed, by washing and physical separation of the hydratable phosphatides. Soybean oil is an excellent source of energy for monogastrics such as swine and poultry that require energy consumption. It is also widely used to compose rations of other animal species, in which it is desired to increase the energy concentration of the diets. Soybean Oil is widely used for human food (frying oils) or for bioenergy production (biodiesel) through specific industrial processes.
Neutral Soybean Oil
Neutral Soybean Oil results from the chemical treatment of Degummed Soybean Oil. The degumming and neutralization process aims to reduce acidity levels, typically from 0.8-1.2% to levels below 0.1%. Applications include human food (after which it will have to be treated for this purpose and often in mixtures with Sunflower oil) or for the production of biodiesel (there are also several production options, see definition of biodiesel).
Degummed Rapeseed Oil
The extraction of Rapeseed Oil is achieved through an industrial process, in a first step through a mechanical pressing process, followed by a solid/liquid extraction with solvent. After mechanical extraction, only a clarification phase is required, where impurities and dirt are removed by decanting and centrifuging, but in chemical extraction, clarification is necessary, where impurities and dirt are removed, by washing and physical separation of the hydratable phosphatides. Degummed rapeseed oil has no direct application for food purposes and is mostly used in the production of bioenergy (biodiesel) through specific industrial processes, due to its excellent cooling properties, compared to Soybean Oil and Palm Oil. Its application in frying oils in human food is very limited, compared to Soybean and Sunflower Oil or even Palm Oil.
Neutral Rapeseed Oil
Neutral Rapeseed Oil results from the chemical treatment of Degummed Rapeseed Oil. As with Soybean Oil, the degumming and neutralization process aims to reduce acidity levels, typically from 0.6-0.9% to levels below 0.1%. In this case, applications for human consumption are very limited due to their chemical characteristics, so most of the Neutral Oil is directed to the production of Biodiesel, a more environmentally friendly fuel, and an alternative to diesel of fossil origin.
Camelina Oil is the oil extracted (by pressing followed by solid/liquid extraction with solvent) from the seed of Camelina (Camelina Sativa), an oilseed of the Brassicaceae family (such as rapeseed) which has been cultivated since time immemorial (it is native to Northern Europe and Central Asia, but is currently cultivated all over the world)). Camellia oil can be used both for technical purposes (such as the production of biodiesel – excellent cooling properties) and for human consumption. In this particular, it is a largely unsaturated oil (>90%), with high oxidative stability, with a high content of omega-3 (approximately 39% of fatty acids, with 38% of alpha-linolenic acid) and omega-6 (with approximately 18% fatty acids, with 17% linolenic acid) as well as vitamin E. The levels of erucic acid in camelina oil are below the maximum level (5%) of erucic acid allowed in cooking oils, salad oils and margarines.
Sunflower Oil is the oil extracted (by pressing followed by solid/liquid extraction with solvent) from the seed of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Sunflower oil after being extracted and desolventized must be processed to create an edible product. This processing consists of its refining (to develop, among others, flavor, odor and color), using processes that degum, neutralize, whiten and deodorize the oil. These oil refining processes eliminate contaminants such as phosphatides, free fatty acids, and pro-oxidants. Sunflower oil is one of the most important oils used as a food source (due to its mild flavor), for frying (due to its high smoke point), and for cosmetics. It can also be used for technical purposes, for example in the production of biodiesel. It is an oil with low content of saturated fat and high content of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids.